Research studies on sudden cardiac arrest, CPR, AED use, and emergency response planning used as references for this program:

  1. Maron BJ, Doerer JJ, Haas TS, Tierney DM, Mueller FO. Sudden deaths in young competitive athletes: analysis of 1866 deaths in the United States, 1980-2006. Circulation. 2009 Mar 3;119(8):1085-92. Epub 2009 Feb 16.
  2. Marc R. Safran, Douglas McKeag, Steven P. Van Camp. Manual of sports medicine, Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1998, 752 pages.
  3. Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Statistics: 2011 Heart and Stroke Statistics Update.
  4. Ginsburg W. Prepare to be shocked: the evolving standard of care in treating sudden cardiac arrest. Am J Emerg Med 1998;16(3):315-319.
  5. Myerberg RJ, Kessler KM, Castellanos A. Sudden cardiac death: epidemiology, transient risk, and intervention assessment. Ann Intern Med 1993;119(12):1187-1197.
  6. Project ADAM. []
  7. Bunch TJ, White RD, Friedman PA, Kottke TE, Wu LA, Packer DL. Trends in treated ventricular fibrillation out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a 17-year population-based study. Heart Rhythm 2004;1(3):255-259.
  8. Rea TD, Eisenberg MS, Sinibaldi G, White RD. Incidence of EMS-treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the United States. Resuscitation 2004;63(1):17-24.
  9. Fredriksson M, Herlitz J, Nichol G. Variation in outcome in studies of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a review of studies conforming to the Utstein guidelines. Am J Emerg Med 2003 Jul;21(4):276-281.
  10. Nichol G, Stiell IG, Laupacis A, Pham B, De Maio VJ, Wells GA. A cumulative meta-analysis of the effectiveness of defibrillator-capable emergency medical services for victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Ann Emerg Med 1999;34(4 Pt 1):517-525.
  11. Iwami T, Hiraide A, Kajino K, Berg RA, Nishiuchi T, Hayashi Y, Nitta M, Ikeuchi H, Nonogi H, Kawamura T; J-PULSE investigators. Patient Characteristics and Outcomes of Witnessed Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Osaka: A 7-Year Emergency Medical Services Perspective in a Large Population. Circulation 116: II_932-a.
  12. Hallstrom AP, Ornato JP, Weisfeldt M, Travers A, Christenson J, McBurnie MA, Zalenski R, Becker LB, Schron EB, Proschan M; Public Access Defibrillation Trial Investigators. Public-access defibrillation and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 2004;351(7):637-646.
  13. Caffrey SL, Willoughby PJ, Pepe PE, Becker LB. Public use of automated external defibrillators. N Engl J Med 2002;347(16):1242–1247.
  14. Valenzuela TD, Roe DJ, Nichol G, Clark LL, Spaite DW, Hardman RG. Outcomes of rapid defibrillation by security officers after cardiac arrest in casinos. N Engl J Med 2000;343(17):1206-1209.
  15. White RD, Bunch TJ, Hankins DG. Evolution of a community-wide early defibrillation programme experience over 13 years using police/fire personnel and paramedics as responders. Resuscitation 2005;65(3):279-283.
  16. International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation.2005 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Circulation. 2005; 112: III-1–III-136.
  17. Garza A, Gratton M, Lindholm D, Salamone J, Archer R. Improvement in Survival to Discharge of Cardiac Arrest Patients Using Novel Out of Hospital Treatment Protocol. Circulation 2007;116:II_937.
  18. Aufderheide TP, Birnbaum M, Lick C, Myers B; Romig L, Stothert J, Vartanian L.A Tale of Seven EMS Systems: An Impedance Threshold Device and Improved CPR Techniques Double Survival Rates After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. Circulation 2007;116:II_936-II_937.
  19. Herlitz J, Ekström L, Wennerblom B, Axelsson A, Bång A, Holmberg S. Effect of bystander initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation on ventricular fibrillation and survival after witnessed cardiac arrest outside hospital. Br Heart J 1994;72(5):408-412.
  20. Stiell IG, Wells GA, Field B, Spaite DW, Nesbitt LP, De Maio VJ, Nichol G, Cousineau D, Blackburn J, Munkley D,Luinstra- Toohey L, Campeau T, Dagnone E, Lyver M; Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support Study Group. Advanced cardiac life support in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 2004;351(7):647-656.
  21. Aufderheide TP, Sigurdsson G, Pirrallo RG, Yannopoulos D, McKnite S, von Briesen C, Sparks CW, Conrad CJ, Provo TA, Lurie KG. Hyperventilation-induced hypotension during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Circulation 2004;109(16): 1960- 1965.
  22. 22 Wik L, Kramer-Johansen J, Myklebust H, Sørebø H, Svensson L, Fellows B, Steen PA. Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 2005;293(3):299-304.
  23. Abella BS, Alvarado JP, Myklebust H, Edelson DP, Barry A, O'Hearn N, Vanden Hoek TL, Becker LB. Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during in-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 2005;293(3):305-310.
  24. Vadeboncoeur T, Bobrow BJ, Clark L, Kern KB, Sanders AB, Berg RA, Ewy GA The Save Hearts in Arizona Registry and Education (SHARE) program: who is performing CPR and where are they doing it? Resuscitation 2007;75(1):68-75.
  25. Swor R, Khan I, Domeier R, Honeycutt L, Chu K. CPR training and CPR performance: do CPR-trained bystanders perform CPR? Acad Emerg Med 2006;13(6):596-601.
  26. Sanna T, La Torre G, de Waure C, Scapigliati A, Ricciardi W, Russo AD, Pelargonio G, Casella M, Bellocci F. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation alone vs.cardiopulmonary resuscitation plus automated external defibrillator use by non-healthcare professionals: A meta-analysis on 1583 cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 2007; [Epub ahead of print].
  27. 2010 AHA Guidelines for CPR and Emergency Cardiovascular Care.
  28. David JS, Gueugniaud PY. [New aspects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.] Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2007; [Epub ahead of print].
  29. Lotfi K, White L, Rea T, Cobb L, Copass M, Yin L, Becker L, Eisenberg M. Cardiac arrest in schools. Circulation 2007;116(12):1374-1379.
  30. Vadeboncoeur T, Bobrow BJ, Clark L, Kern KB, Sanders AB, Berg RA, Ewy GA The Save Hearts in Arizona Registry and Education (SHARE) program: who is performing CPR and where are they doing it? Resuscitation 2007;75(1):68-75.
  31. Fleischhackl R, Nuernberger A, Schoenberg C, Urso T, Habart T, Mittlboeck M, Sterz F. Can schoolchildren provide life supporting first aid sufficiently? Circulation 2007;116:II_927.
  32. Younas S, Raynes A, Morton S, Mackway-Jones K. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the Opportunities for Resuscitation and Citizen Safety (ORCS) defibrillator training programme designed for older school children. Resuscitation 2006;71(2):222-228.
  33. Drezner, Jonathan, et al. Inter-Association Task Force Recommendations on Emergency Preparedness and Management of Sudden Cardiac Arrest in High School and College Athlete Programs: A consensus statement. Heart Rhythm Society 2007;4:549-565.